See also Judicial guarantees; Necessity; Self-defence; Superior Orders





Suggested readings:

ESER Albin, “Defences in War Crimes”, in IYHR, Vol. 24, 1994, pp. 201-234.
GALAND Renaud & DELOOZ François, “L’article 31, par. 1 c) du Statut de la Cour pénale internationale : une remise en cause des acquis du droit international humanitaire ?”, in IRRC, No. 842, June 2001, pp. 533-538.
KNOOPS Geert-Jan, Defenses in Contemporary International Law, Ardsley NY, Transnational Publishers, 2001, 287 pp.
ROWE Peter, “Duress as a Defence to War Crimes after Erdemovic: A Laboratory for a Permanent Court?”, in YIHL, Vol. 1, 1998, pp. 210-228.
SHAHABUDDEEN Mohamed, “Duress in International Humanitarian Law”, in ARMAS BAREA Calixto A. (ed.), Liber amicorum ‘in memoriam’ of Judge José Mariá Ruda, The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2000, pp. 563-574.
“Atelier sur l’article 31, par. 1 c) du Statut de la Cour pénale internationale, coordonné par Éric DAVID”, in RBDI, 2000-2, pp. 355-488.