Legislation for application

National legislation that must be adopted to make IHL rules operational.



penal sanctions

    GCI, 49 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCII, 50 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCIII, 129

    GCIV, 146

use of the emblem

    GCI, 44 (see ICRC updated Commentaryand 54 (see ICRC updated Commentary)



Suggested readings:
BERMAN Paul, “The ICRC’s Advisory Service on International Humanitarian Law: The Challenge of National Implementation”, in IRRC, No. 312, May-June 1996, pp. 338-347.
CASSESE Antonio & DELMAS-MARTY Mireille (eds), Juridictions nationales et crimes internationaux, Paris, PUF,
2002, 673 pp.
DÖRMANN Knut & GEISS Robin, “The Implementation of Grave Breaches into Domestic Legal Orders”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 7, No. 4, September 2009, pp. 703-722.
FLECK Dieter, “Implementing International Humanitarian Law: Problems and Priorities”, in IRRC, No. 281, March-April 1991, 13 pp.

Further readings:
BACIO TERRACINO Julio, “National Implementation of ICC Crimes: Impact on National Jurisdictions and the ICC”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 5, No. 2, May 2007, pp. 421-440.
BOTHE Michael, “The Role of National Law in the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law”, in Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet, Geneva, ICRC, The Hague, M. Nijhoff, 1984, pp. 301-312.
LA ROSA Anne-Marie & CHAVEZ-TAFUR Gabriel, “Implementing International Humanitarian Law through the Rome Statute”, in BELLELLI Roberto (ed.), International Criminal Justice: Law and Practice from the Rome Statute to its Review, Farnham, Ashgate, July 2010, pp. 473-488.
MEYER Michael A. & ROWE Peter, “The Geneva Conventions (Amendments) Act 1995: A Generally Minimalist Approach”, in ICLQ, Vol. 45/2, 1996, pp. 476-484.
MEYER Michael A. & ROWE Peter, “Ratification by the United Kingdom of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949: Selected Problems of Implementation”, in NetherlandsInternational Law Quarterly, Vol. 45/4, 1994, pp. 343-363.
VAN ELST Richard, “Implementing Universal Jurisdiction over Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions”, in LeidenJournal of international Law, Vol. 15, 2000, pp. 815-854. National Implementation of International Humanitarian Law – 2002-2003 Biennial Report, Geneva, ICRC, 2004, 40 pp.