Cartel aircraft
An aircraft used by a parlementaire sent to parley with the enemy. A cartel aircraft enjoys the same conditional immunity as the parlementaire, subject to any conditions that may be imposed for its identification, whether visual or by radio or radar, and on its flight plan. It may not be attacked or captured during the outward or return journey.

Civilian aircraft
A privately owned aircraft used to transport goods or civilian persons. Civilian aircraft are subject to the same rules as merchant ships.

Medical aircraft
See Medical aircraft

Military aircraft
An aircraft that (a) proves its military purpose by using the distinguishing marks adopted for that purpose by the State to which it belongs; (b) is placed under the direct authority, and the immediate control and responsibility, of the State; (c) is commanded by a person whose name appears in lists of military personnel; and (d) is protected by a crew of military or militarized personnel.




    GCI, 36 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCI, 37 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCII, 39 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCII, 40 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCIV, 22

    PI, 24

    PI, 25

    PI, 26

    PI, 27

    PI, 28

    PI, 29

    PI, 30

    PI, 31

    CIHL, 29

    CIHL, 30



Civil and neutral aircraft

DOSWALD-BECK Louise, “Vessels, Aircraft and Persons Entitled to Protection During Armed Conflicts at Sea”, in BYIL, 1994, 268-277 pp.

ROBERTSON Horace B., “The Status of Civil Aircraft in Armed Conflict”, in IYHR, Vol. 27, 1997-1998, pp. 113-150.