The fact that a breach was committed by a subordinate does not absolve his superiors from penal or disciplinary responsibility. Superiors can be responsible if they knew or had information which should have enabled them to conclude, in the circumstances and at the time, the subordinate was committing or going to commit a breach; and the superior did not take all feasible measures within their power to prevent or repress the breach

See Orders; Superiors; Commanders; Criminal repression;






SUGGESTED READING:   BANTEKAS Ilias, “The Interests of States Versus the Doctrine of Superior Responsibility”, in IRRC, No. 838, June 2000, p.391-402.   BANTEKAS Ilias, “The Contemporary Law of Superior Responsibility”, in AJIL, No. 93/3, 1999, pp. 573-595.   BURNETT Weston D., “Contemporary International Legal Issues – Command Responsibility and a Case Study of the Criminal Responsibility of Israeli Military Commanders for the Pogrom at Shatila and Sabra”, in Military Law Review, 1985, pp. 71-189.   CHING Ann B., “Evolution of the Command Responsibility Doctrine in Light of the Celebici Decision of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”, in North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, Vol. 25/1, 1999, pp. 167-205.   FERIA-TINTA Monica, “Commanders on Trial: The Blaskic Case and the Doctrine of Command Responsibility under International Law”, in Netherlands International Law Review, Vol. 47/3, 2000, pp. 293-322.   GARRAWAY Charles, “Responsibility of Command – A poisoned Chalice?”, in ARNOLD Roberta & HILBRAND Pierre-Antoine (eds), International Humanitarian Law and the 21st Century’s Conflicts – Changes and Challenges, Lausanne, Editions Universitaires suisses, 2005, pp. 117-138.   HENZELIN Marc, “Les ‘raisons de savoir’ du supérieur hiérarchique qu’un crime va être commis ou a été commis par un subordonné. Examen de la jurisprudence des Tribunaux pénaux internationaux pour l’ex-Yougoslavie et le Rwanda”, in TAVERNIER Paul, Actualité de la jurisprudence pénale internationale à l’heure de la mise en place de la Cour pénale internationale, Brussels, Bruylant, 2004, pp. 108-125.   JIA Bing Bing, “The Doctrine of Command Responsibility in International Law: With Emphasis on Liability for Failure to Punish”, in NetherlandsInternational Law Review, Vol. 45/3, 1998, pp. 325-347.   LAUCCI Cyril, “La responsabilité pénale des détenteurs de l’autorité : étude de la jurisprudence récente des tribunaux pénaux internationaux”, in L’observateur des Nations Unies, Vol. 6, 1999, pp. 142-165.   LAVIOLETTE Nicole, “Commanding Rape: Sexual Violence, Command Responsibility, and the Prosecution of Superiors by the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda”, in CYIL, Vol. 36, 1998, pp. 93-149.   LEVIE Howard S., “Command Responsibility”, in Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 8, 1997-98, pp. 1-18.   LIBBY Sean, “Deffective [Effective] Control: Problems Arising from the Application of Non-Military Command Responsibility by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda”, in Emory International Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2009, pp. 201-230.   LIPPMAN Matthew, “The Evolution and Scope of Command Responsibility”, in LeidenJournal of International Law, Vol.13/1, 2000, pp. 139-170.   MELONI Chantal, Command Responsibility in International Criminal Law, The Hague, TMC Asser press, 2010, 269 pp.   METTRAUX Guénaël, The Law of Command Responsibility, Oxford, OUP, 2009, 307 pp.   MITCHELL Andrew D., “Failure to Halt, Prevent or Punish: The Doctrine of Command Responsibility for War Crimes”, in The Sydney Law Review, Vol. 22/3, 2000, pp. 381-410.   OLASOLO Héctor, The Criminal Responsibility of Senior Political and Military Leaders as Principals to International Crimes, Oxford, Portland, Hart, Studies in International and Comparative Criminal Law, Vol. 4, 2009, 354 pp.   SAROOSHI Danesh, “Command Responsibility and the Blaskic Case”, in ICLQ, Vol.50/2, 2001, pp. 452-465. VETTER Greg R., “Command Responsibility of Non-Military Superiors in the International Criminal Court (ICC)”, in The Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 25/1, 2000, pp. 89-143.   ZAKR Nasser, “La responsabilité du supérieur hiérarchique devant les tribunaux pénaux internationaux”, in Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal, Vol. 73, 2002, pp. 59-80.     FURTHER READING:   BOURGON Stéphane, “La doctrine de la responsabilité du commandement et la notion de lien de subordination devant le tribunal pénal international pour l’ex-Yougoslavie”, in Revue québécoise de droit international, Vol. 19, hors-série 2007, pp. 95-118.   DUNGEL Joakim & SAUTENET Vincent, “Recent Clarifications of Superior Responsibility by International Criminal Tribunals”, in The Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence 2008, Vol. I, 2008, pp. 257-265.   KNOOPS Geert-Jan Alexander, “The Duality of the Proportionality Principle within Asymmetric Warfare and Ensuing Superior Criminal Responsibilities”, in International Criminal Law Review, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2009, pp. 501-529   RONEN Yaël, “Superior Responsibility of Civilians for International Crimes Committed in Civilian Settings”, in Vanderbilt Journal or International Law, Vol. 43, 2010, pp. 313-356.   WILLIAMSON Jamie A., “Some Considerations on Command Responsibility and Criminal Liability”, in IRRC, Vol. 90, No. 870, June 2008, pp. 303-317.