The natural environment is considered to constitute the natural world together with the system of inextricable interrelations between living organisms and their inanimate environment, in the widest sense possible. The natural environment is protected under the general principles governing the conduct of hostilities, inter alia by the prohibition to target civilian objects, by the proportionality rule protecting civilian objects against incidental effects of attacks and the obligation to take feasible precautions for the benefit of civilian objects. It is also specifically prohibited to use methods or means of warfare which are intended or may be expected to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment. Attacks against the natural environment by way of reprisals are also prohibited.
protection against widespread, long-term and severe
prohibition of reprisals
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