A non-governmental organization (NGO, also often referred to as "civil society organization" or CSO) is a not-for-profit group, principally independent from government, which is organized on a local, national or international level to address issues in support of the public good. Task-oriented and made up of people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions, bring public concerns to governments, monitor policy and programme implementation, and encourage participation of civil society stakeholders at the community level. Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights.




 Suggested readings:   BONARD Paul, Modes of Action Used by Humanitarian Players: Criteria for Operational Complementarity, Geneva, ICRC, September 1998, 65 pp.   BRETT Rachel, “Non-Governmental Human Rights Organizations and International Humanitarian Law”, in IRRC, No. 324, September 1998, pp. 531-536.   RUBIO François & RYFMAN Philippe, “Les ONG, nouvelles gardiennes des Conventions de Genève ?”, in Humanitaire : enjeux, pratiques, débats 23, November 2009, pp. 12-59.   RYFMAN Philippe, “Non-Governmental Organizations: an Indispensable Player of Humanitarian Aid”, in IRRC, Vol. 89, No. 865, March 2007, pp. 21-45.   WEISSBRODT David & HICKS Peggy, “Implementation of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Situations of Armed Conflicts”, in IRRC, No. 293, March-April 1993, pp. 120-138.   Further readings:   NANDA Ved P., “Non-Governmental Organizations and International Humanitarian Law”, in International Law Studies, US Naval War College, Vol. 71, 1998, pp. 337-358.   VON FLUE Carlo & LAVOYER Jean-Philippe, “How Can NGOs Help Promote International Humanitarian Law?”, in Relief and Rehabilitation Network, Newsletter, London, Overseas Development Institute, 1997, pp. 3-4.