A non-governmental organization (NGO, also often referred to as "civil society organization" or CSO) is a not-for-profit group, principally independent from government, which is organized on a local, national or international level to address issues in support of the public good. Task-oriented and made up of people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions, bring public concerns to governments, monitor policy and programme implementation, and encourage participation of civil society stakeholders at the community level. Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights.
UN, Secretary-General’s Reports on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (Part A., Paras. 53-56)
First Periodical Meeting, Chairman’s Report (Part II.1)
Geneva Call, Puntland State of Somalia Adhering to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines
Case Study, Armed Conflicts in the former Yugoslavia (10-12, 18 and 20)
Afghanistan, Separate Hospital Treatment for Men and Women
United Kingdom, Misuse of the Emblem
Amnesty International, Breach of the Principle of Distinction
United States/United Kingdom, Conduct of the 2003 War in Iraq
Iraq, Use of Force by United States Forces in Occupied Iraq
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO Intervention (Part A.)
Case Study, Armed Conflicts in the Great Lakes Region (Part I. F.1 and 2.B.)
United States, Status and Treatment of Detainees Held in Guantanamo Naval Base (Part I.)
Case Study, Armed Conflicts in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea (Part 2.A. and 2.D.)
Russian Federation, Chechnya, Operation Samashki
The Conflict in Western Sahara (Parts A. and B.)
Georgia/Russia, Human Rights Watch’s Report on the Conflict in South Ossetia
United States of America, Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project
Afghanistan, Attack on Kunduz Trauma Centre
Eastern Ukraine, OHCHR Report on the Situation: November 2016 - February 2017
BONARD Paul, Modes of Action Used by Humanitarian Players: Criteria for Operational Complementarity, Geneva, ICRC, September 1998, 65 pp.
BRETT Rachel, “Non-Governmental Human Rights Organizations and International Humanitarian Law”, in IRRC, No. 324, September 1998, pp. 531-536.
RUBIO François & RYFMAN Philippe, “Les ONG, nouvelles gardiennes des Conventions de Genève ?”, in Humanitaire : enjeux, pratiques, débats 23, November 2009, pp. 12-59.
RYFMAN Philippe, “Non-Governmental Organizations: an Indispensable Player of Humanitarian Aid”, in IRRC, Vol. 89, No. 865, March 2007, pp. 21-45.
WEISSBRODT David & HICKS Peggy, “Implementation of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Situations of Armed Conflicts”, in IRRC, No. 293, March-April 1993, pp. 120-138.
NANDA Ved P., “Non-Governmental Organizations and International Humanitarian Law”, in International Law Studies, US Naval War College, Vol. 71, 1998, pp. 337-358.
VON FLUE Carlo & LAVOYER Jean-Philippe, “How Can NGOs Help Promote International Humanitarian Law?”, in Relief and Rehabilitation Network, Newsletter, London, Overseas Development Institute, 1997, pp. 3-4.