The principle of proportionality prohibits attacks against military objectives which are “expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated”.
In other words, the principle of proportionality seeks to limit damage caused by military operations by requiring that the effects of the means and methods of warfare used must not be disproportionate to the military advantage sought.
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ICJ, Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion (Para. 43)
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Israel, The Targeted Killings Case (Paras. 40-46)
Israel, Human Rights Committee’s Report on Beit Hanoun (Paras. 38-42)
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ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Kupreskic et al.(Para. 526)
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO Intervention (Part A., Paras. 4, 18-19 and Part B., Paras 75-78)
Afghanistan, Drug Dealers as Legitimate Targets
Afghanistan, Goatherd Saved from Attack
Afghanistan, Assessment of ISAF Strategy
Georgia/Russia, Human Rights Watch’s Report on the Conflict in South Ossetia (Paras. 28-30, 41-47)
Georgia/Russia, Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Conflict in South Ossetia (Paras. 66-67)
Cambodia/Thailand, Border Conflict around the Temple of Preah Vihear
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Syria, Report by UN Commission of Inquiry (March 2017)
Afghanistan, Bombing of a Civilian Truck
Italy, Use of force against ambulances in Iraq
ICRC, Statement - War in Cities ; What is at Stake?
Germany, Aerial Drone Attack in Mir Ali/Pakistan
Eastern Ukraine, OHCHR Report on the Situation: November 2016 - February 2017
Central African Republic, No Class: When Armed Groups Use Schools
Afghanistan/US, 'Mother of all bombs"
ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Prlić et al.
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