See also Cultural Property; Environment; Medical Objects;  Civilian Objects;

Under international humanitarian law, civilian objects such as schools, hospitals, and houses are protected. So are humanitarian, religious and medical objects, as well as the environment. In addition, cultural property benefits from an additional protection




Israel, House Demolitions in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (Part. D and E.)

Iran/Iraq, UN Security Council Assessing Violations of International Humanitarian Law

ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Rajic (Part A., Paras. 39 and 42)

ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Strugar (Part B., Para. 282)

Croatia, Prosecutor v. Rajko Radulovic and Others

Afghanistan, Operation “Enduring Freedom” (Part B.)

Afghanistan, Code of Conduct for the Mujahideen (Arts 19-21, 23-25, 52-53-58)

Georgia/Russia, Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Conflict in South Ossetia (Paras. 37-47, 94-109)

Cambodia/Thailand, Border Conflict around the Temple of Preah Vihear

Iran, Victim of Cyber warfare

Afghanistan, Attack on Kunduz Trauma Centre

Libya, Report of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (2014/15)

Mali, Accountability for the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

Iraq, Forced displacement and deliberate destruction

Syria, Report by UN Commission of Inquiry (March 2017)

Afghanistan, Bombing of a Civilian Truck

Italy, Use of force against ambulances in Iraq

Syria, the Battle for Aleppo

Germany, Aerial Drone Attack in Mir Ali/Pakistan

Eastern Ukraine, Attacks Against and Military Use of Schools

United States of America, Military Commissions Trial Judiciary, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba: United States of America v. Khalid Shaikh Mohammad et al.

Syria, Syrian rebels treat captured Filipino soldiers as 'guests'

South Sudan, Attack in Malakal UN Protection Site

Central African Republic/Democratic Republic of Congo/Uganda, LRA attacks

Central African Republic, No Class: When Armed Groups Use Schools

Yemen , Humanitarian Impact of the Conflict


JIA Bing Bing, “‘Protected Property’ and its Protection in International Humanitarian Law”, in LeidenJournal of International Law, Vol. 15/1, 2002, pp. 131-153.
SASSÒLI Marco & CAMERON Lindsey, “The Protection of Civilian Objects Current State of the Law and Issues de Lege Ferenda”, in RONZITTI Natalino & VENTURINI Gabriella (eds), Current Issues in the International Humanitarian Law of Air Warfare, Utrecht, Eleven, 2005, pp. 35-74.