Under IHL, water is considered as an object indispensable for the survival fo the civilian population.

See also Civilian objects; Environment;



prohibited to poison

    HR, 23/a

for POWs, internees and civilian population

    GCIII, 20, 26/3, 29 and 46/3

    GCIV, 85, 89/3, 127/2

    PI, 54

    PII, 5/1(b) and 14

    CIHL, 118



Suggested readings: 

ABOUALI Gamal, “Natural Resources under Occupation: The Status of Palestinian Water under International Law”, in Pace International Law Review, Vol. 10/2, 1998, pp. 411-574.   BENVENISTI Eyal, “Water Conflicts During the Occupation in Iraq”, in AJIL, Vol. 97, 2003, pp. 860-872.   BOUTRUCHE Théo, “Le statut de l’eau en droit international humanitaire”, in IRRC, No. 840, December 2000, pp. 887-916.   ICRC, Water and War: ICRC Response, Geneva, ICRC, July 2009, 21 pp.   JORGENSEN Nikolai, “The Protection of Freshwater in Armed Conflict”, in Journal of International Law and International Relations, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2007, pp. 57-96.   Water and War: Symposium on Water in Armed Conflicts (Montreux, 21-23 November 1994), Geneva, ICRC, 1995, 168 pp.   ZEMMALI Ameur, “The Protection of Water in Times of Armed Conflicts”, in IRRC, No. 308, September-October 1995, pp. 550-564.   ZEMMALI Ameur, “The Right to Water in Times of Armed Conflict”, in LIJNZAAD Liesbeth, VAN SAMBEEK Johanna & TAHZIBLIE Bahia (eds), Making the Voice of Humanity Heard, Leiden/Boston, M. Nijhoff, 2004, pp. 307-318.