Cultural property

In international law, this term covers, irrespective of origin or ownership, movable or immovable property constituting the cultural heritage of all mankind, to which each people makes its contribution. In view of the importance of cultural property to all peoples of the world, international law has attempted to ensure its protection in case of armed conflict.
Protected cultural property comprises: historic monuments, works of art, buildings and places of worship, archaeological sites, museums and depositories, libraries, archives, scientific collections, etc.
These must be respected and safeguarded against the foreseeable effects of an armed conflict. They must not be used for purposes which are likely to expose them to destruction or damage, or be the objects of hostility or pillage, theft, misappropriation or vandalism. Protection extends to the transport of movable cultural property, and may be special, for property of very great importance, or standard.
Reprisals against cultural property are prohibited. Cultural property must be marked with a special distinctive emblem.
General protection:
 
Special protection:
 
 
 

 OUTLINE

 LEGAL SOURCE

 DOCUMENT

 CASES

 BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES

Suggested readings:
 
DESCH Thomas, “The Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict”, in YIHL, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 63-90.
 
EUSTATHIADES Constantin, “La protection des biens culturels en cas de conflit armé et la Convention de la Haye du 14 mai 1954”, in Études de Droit International, Athens, Klissiounis, Vol. 3, 1959, pp. 395-524.
 
HENCKAERTS Jean-Marie, “New Rules for the Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict: The Significance of the Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict”, in Humanitäres Völkerrecht, Vol. 12/3, 1999, pp. 147-154.
 
HLADIK Jan, “Protection of Cultural Property: the Legal Aspects”, in JACQUES Richard B. (ed.), “Issues in International Law and Military Operations”, in International Law Studies, Vol. 80, 2006, pp. 319-331.
 
KONOPKA Jean A. (ed.), La protection des biens culturels en temps de guerre et de paix d’après les conventions internationales (multilatérales), Geneva, Imprimerie de Versoix, 1997, 163 pp.
 
O’KEEFE Roger, The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict, Cambridge, CUP, 2006, 404 pp.
 
STAVRAKI Emmanuelle, La Convention pour la protection des biens culturels en cas de conflit armé, Athens, Editions Ant. N. Sakkoulas, 1996, 306 pp.
 
TANJA Gerard J., “Recent Developments Concerning the Law for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict”, in LeidenJournal of International Law, 1994, pp. 115-125.
 
TECHERA Erika J., “Protection of Cultural Heritage in Times of Armed Conflict: the International Legal Framework
Revisited”, in MacquarieJournal of International and Comparative Environmental Law, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-20.
 
TOMAN Jiri, The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Aldershot/Paris, Dartmouth Publishing Company/ UNESCO Publishing, 1996, 525 pp.
 
“Special issue: Protection of cultural property in armed conflict”, in IRRC, No. 854, June 2004, pp. 311-481.
 
VAN WOUDENBERG Nout & LIJNZAAD Liesbeth (eds), Protecting Cultural Property in Armed Conflict: an Insight into the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Leiden, Boston, M. Nijhoff, 2010, 243 pp.
 
Further readings:
 
ABTAHI Hirad, “Le patrimoine culturel iraquien à l’épreuve de l’intervention militaire du printemps 2003”, in Actualité et Droit International, May 2003, 13 pp., online: http://www.ridi.org/adi.
 
ABTAHI Hirad, “The Protection of Cultural Property in Times of Armed Conflict: The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia”, in Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 14, 2001, pp. 1-2.
 
CARDUCCI Guido, “L’obligation de restitution des biens culturels et des objets d’art en cas de conflit armé : droit coutumier et droit conventionnel avant et après la Convention de La Haye de 1954. L’importance du facteur temporel dans les rapports entre les traités et la coutume”, in RGDIP, Vol. 104/2, 2000, pp. 289-357.
 
DRIVER Mark C., “The Protection of Cultural Property During Wartime”, in Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, Vol. 9/1, 2000, pp. 1-12.