Deportation

Under the Fourth Geneva Convention, it is prohibited to remove or to carry out individual or mass forcible transfers of protected persons from the occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, regardless of the motive for such removal/transfer. There are good reasons for considering – and the jurisprudence of international criminal tribunals and the ICC Statute have recognized – that this prohibition applies equally to forcible transfers within an occupied territory. In international armed conflicts, such removals/transfers constitute war crimes. In non-international armed conflicts, there is a broader, and more general prohibition against forced movement of civilians, unless their security or imperative military reasons so demand.

See Protected persons; Occupation; War crimesNon-international armed conflict; Transfer;

 OUTLINE

 LEGAL SOURCEs

of own population to occupied territory

    GCIV, 49/6

    PI, 85/4(a)

    CIHL, 130

of protected persons from occupied territory

    GCIV, 49/1, 147

    PI, 85/4(a)

    CIHL, 129 A

of nationals of Occupying Power who have sought refuge in occupied territory

    GCIV, 70/2

    GCIV, 147

    PI, 73

    CIHL, 129 A

 DOCUMENT

 CASES

 
In non-international armed conflicts
 

OUTLINE

 LEGAL SOURCEs

 CASES

 BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES

Suggested readings:

ABEBE Allehone Mulugeta, “Displacement of Civilians during Armed Conflict in the Light of the Case Law of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission”, in Leiden Journal of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2009, pp. 823-851.
 
DINSTEIN Yoram, “The Israel Supreme Court and the Law of Belligerent Occupation: Deportations”, in IYHR, Vol. 23, 1993, pp. 1-26.
 
LAPIDOTH Ruth, “The Expulsion of Civilians from Areas which Came under Israeli Control in 1967: Some Legal Issues”, in EJIL, Vol. 1, 1991, pp. 97-109.
 
MANGALA Jack M., “Préventions des déplacements forcés de population – possibilités et limites”, in IRRC, No. 844, December 2001, pp. 1067-1095.
 
PLATTNER Denise, “The Protection of Displaced Persons in Non-International Armed Conflicts”, in IRRC, No. 291, November-December 1992, 13 pp.
 
SHERRY Virginia N., Persona Non Grata: The Expulsion of Lebanese Civilians from Israeli-Occupied Lebanon, New York, Human Rights Watch, 1999, 83 pp., http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/lebanon.
 
WILMS Jan, “Without Order, Anything Goes?: The Prohibition of Forced Displacement in Non- International Armed Conflict”, in IRRC, Vol. 91, No. 875, September 2009, pp. 547-575.