Failed states

“Under international law, a State is an entity that has a defined territory and a permanent population, under the control of its own government, and that engages in, or has the capacity to engage in, formal relations with other such entities. A State becomes failed when the third constitutive element of statehood, a government in effective control, fades away.”





GEISS Robin, “Failed States: Legal Aspects and Security Implications”, in German Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 47, 2004, pp. 457-501
GEISS Robin, “Armed Violence in Fragile States: Low-Intensity Conflicts, Spillover Conflicts, and Sporadic Law Enforcement Operations by Third Parties”, in IRRC, Vol. 91, no. 873, March 2009, pp. 127-142.
KRITSIOTIS Dino, “International Humanitarian Law and the Disintegration of States”, in IYHR, Vol. 30, 2000, pp. 17-35
THUERER Daniel, “The ‘Failed State’ and International Law”, in IRRC, No. 836, December 1999, pp. 731-761.
THUERER Daniel, “Der Wegfall effektiver Staatsgewalt: Der ‘failed State’”, in Berichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerrecht, Vol. 34, Heidelberg, 1995, pp. 9-47
Armed Conflicts and Disintegration of States: Humanitarian Challenge: 21st Round Table on Current Problems of International Humanitarian Law, 25 September 1996, San Remo, International Institute of Humanitarian Law, 1996, 107 pp.