Hospital zones and localities, hospital and safety zones and localities

Hospital zones and localities
Zones and localities organized to protect, from the effects of war, wounded and sick from the armed forces, medical personnel and the personnel employed in the organization and administration of these zones and localities or assigned to care for the persons therein assembled.
Hospital zones must fulfil the following conditions:

  1. they must comprise only a small part of the territory governed by the Power which has established them;
  2. they must be thinly populated in relation to the possibilities of accommodation;
  3. they must be removed and free from all military objectives, or large industrial or administrative establishments;
  4. they must not be situated in areas which, according to every probability, may become important for the conduct of war;
  5. the lines of communication and means of transport which they possess must not be used for the transport of military personnel or material, even in transit;
  6. they must in no case be defended by military means.

Such zones must be recognized by an agreement between the parties.
Hospital zones and localities have affinities with neutralized zones, and demilitarized zones.
Hospital zones must be marked by appropriate distinctive signs.
 
Hospital and safety zones and localities
Zones fulfilling the same conditions as hospital zones and localities, and so organized as to protect from the effects of war, wounded, sick and aged persons, children under fifteen, expectant mothers of children under seven, and the personnel allowed for hospital zones and localities. Recognition of hospital and safety zones and localities must be by agreement between the parties, and they must be marked by appropriate distinctive signs.
Such zones and localities have affinities with neutralized zones and demilitarized zones.
 
See also Neutralized zones, Demilitarized zones
 

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 BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES

Suggested readings:
 
BOUVIER Antoine, “Zones protégées, zones de sécurité et protection de la population civile”, in BOUSTANY Katia & DORMOY Daniel, Perspectives humanitaires entre conflits, droit(s) et action, Brussels, Bruylant, 2002, pp. 251-269.
 
LAVOYER Jean-Philippe, “International Humanitarian Law, Protected Zones and the Use of Force”, in BIERMANN Wolfgang & VADSET Martin (eds), UN Peacekeeping in Trouble: Lessons Learned from the former Yugoslavia, Aldershot, Ashgate, 1998, pp. 262-279.
 
OSWALD Bruce M., “The Creation and Control of Places of Protection During United Nations Peace Operations”, in IRRC, No. 844, December 2001, pp. 1013-1036.
 
SANDOZ Yves, “Localités et zones sous protection spéciale”, in Quatre études du droit international humanitaire, Geneva, Henry-Dunant Institute, 1985, pp. 35-47
 
TORELLI Maurice, “Les zones de sécurité”, in RGDIP, Vol. 99/4, 1995, pp. 787-848
 
Further readings:
 
LANDGREN Karen, “Safety Zones and International Protection: A Dark Grey Area”, in International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 7/3, 1995, pp. 436-458.
 
PATEL Bimal N., “Protection zones in international humanitarian law”, in The Indian Journal of International Law, Vol. 39/4, 1999, pp. 689-702. “Zones sanitaires et zones de sécurité”, in IRRC, Nos 390 & 392, 1951, 80 pp.