Misuse (of the emblem)

Any use of the emblems not expressly authorized by IHL, which limits the use of the emblem to certain entities and/or persons.

Under Art. 85 (3) (f) of Protocol I, the perfidious use of the emblems constitutes a grave breach of the Protocol.

See Emblems; Grave breaches; Violation;

OUTLINE

LEGAL SOURCEs

indicative use of Red Cross emblem

GCI, 53 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

protective use of Red Cross emblem

HR, 23/f

GCI, 42 & 44 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

GCII, 44 & 45 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

PI, 18/8, 37/1, 38, 85/3

 DOCUMENT

 CASES

 BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES

MEYER Michael, “Protecting the Emblems in Peacetime: The Experiences of the British Red Cross”, in IRRC, No. 272, September-October 1989, pp. 459-464.
 
SLIM Habib, “Protection of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Emblems and the Repression of Misuse”, in IRRC, No. 272, September-October 1989, pp. 420-437