Protecting powers

A "Protecting Power" is a neutral State or other State not a Party to the conflict which has been designated by a Party to the conflict and accepted by the enemy Party and has agreed to carry out the functions assigned to a Protecting Power under international humanitarian law.
 
In the absence of an agreement on a Protecting Power, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization should be designated as a substitute.
 
In practice, the Protecting Powers system has not been used in recent years. Instead, the International Committee of the Red Cross has come to be recognized as a substitute for the Protecting Power.
 

 OUTLINE

 LEGAL SOURCE

concept

    PI, 2c

appointment

    PI, 5/1-2

possible substitute

    GCI, 10 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCII, 10 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GCIII, 10

    GCIV, 11

tasks

    GC III, 126(1)

    GC IV, 76 and 143

    GC III, 71(1) and 72(3)

    GC III, 65(2) and 73(3)

    GC IV, 23(3), 55(4), 59(4) and 61

    P I, 11(6) and 70(3)

    P I, 78

    GC III, 78(2)

    GC IV, 30, 52 and 102

    GC III, 105(2)

    GC IV, 42, 71, 72, 74

    P I, Art. 45

    GC IV, 39 and 98

    GC I, 16 and 48 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GC II, 19 and 49 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GC III, 23(3), 62(1), 63(3), 66(1), 68(1), 69, 75(1), 77(1), 120(1), 122(3) and 128

    GC IV, 83 and 137

    P I, Arts 33, 45 and 60

    GC III, Arts 56(3), 60(4), 79(4), 81(6), 96(5), 100(1), 101, 104(1) and 107(1)

    GC IV, Arts 35, 42, 49(4), 71, 72, 74, 75, 96, 98, 105, 108, 111, 123(5), 129 and 145

    GC I-III, common Art. 11 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GC IV, Art. 12

    GC I, Art. 23 (see ICRC updated Commentary)

    GC IV, Art. 14
 

 DOCUMENT

 CASES

 BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES

COULIBALY Hamidou, “Le rôle des Puissances protectrices au regard du droit diplomatique, du droit de Genève et du droit de La Haye”, in KALSHOVEN Frits & SANDOZ Yves (eds), Implementation of International Humanitarian Law, Dordrecht, M. Nijhoff, 1989, pp. 69-78.
 
DOMINICÉ Christian & PATRNOGIC Jovica, “Les Protocoles additionnels aux Conventions de Genève et le système
des puissances protectrices”, in Annales de Droit International Médical, No. 28, 1979, pp. 24-50.
 
JANNER Antonino, La Puissance protectrice en droit international, d’après les expériences faites par la Suisse pendant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, Basel, Helbing und Lichtenhahn, 1948, 2nd ed., 1972, 79 pp.
 
LEVIE Howard S., “Prisoners of War and the Protecting Power”, in AJIL, Vol. 55, 1961, pp. 374-397
 
WYLIE Neville, “Protecting Powers in a Changing World”, in Politorbis, revue de politique étrangère, No. 40, 2006, pp. 6-14
 
Further readings:
 
FRANKLIN William McHenry, Protection of Foreign Interests: A Study in Diplomatic and Consular Practice, Washington, United States Government Printing Office, Department of State Publication No. 2693, 1946, 328 pp.
 
KUSSBACH Erich, “Le Protocole Additionnel I et les États neutres”, in IRRC, No. 725, September 1980, pp. 82-95.
 
WYLIE Neville, “Protecting Powers in a Changing World”, in Politorbis, revue de politique étrangère, No. 40, 2006, pp. 6-14.