Rape and sexual violence

Acts of a sexual nature imposed by force, or coercion, such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power directed against any victim – man, woman, boy or girl. Taking advantage of a coercive environment or of the victim’s incapacity to give genuine consent is also a form of coercion. Sexual violence encompasses: rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy, forced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of a comparable gravity.

 OUTLINE

 LEGAL SOURCE

 CASES

 BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES

Suggested readings:
 
ANTONIONI Antonio, “Le viol et le droit de la guerre dans la doctrine”, in Journal of the History of International Law, Vol. 4/1, 2002, pp. 100-114.
 
CHINKIN Christine, “Rape and Sexual Abuse of Women in International Law”, in EJIL, Vol. 5/3, 1994, pp. 326-341.
 
COPELON Rhonda, “Gender Crimes as War Crimes: Integrating Crimes Against Women into International Criminal Law”, in McGill Law Journal, Vol. 46/1, 2000, pp. 217-240.
 
DIXON Rosalind, “Rape as a Crime in International Humanitarian Law: Where to From Here?”, in EJIL, Vol. 13/3, June 2002, pp. 697-719.
 
GUENIVET Karima, Violences sexuelles : la nouvelle arme de guerre, Paris, Michalon, 2001, 206 pp.
 
ISLAM Rafiqul, “The Culpability of Gender-Based Terrorism in International Humanitarian Law: the Rape of Women in Armed Conflicts”, in ISILYearbook of International Humanitarian and Refugee Law, Vol. 6, 2006, pp. 87-105.
 
KENNEDY-PIPE Caroline & PENNY Stanley, “Rape in War: Lessons of the Balkan Conflicts in the 1990s”, in International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 4/3-4, 2000, pp. 67-84.
 
MERON Theodor, “Rape as a Crime under International Humanitarian Law”, in AJIL, Vol. 87/3 1993, pp. 424-428.
 
MORRIS Madeline, “By Force of Arms: Rape, War and Military Culture”, in Duke Law Journal, Vol. 45/4, 1996, pp. 651-781.
 
NIARCHOS Catherine N., “Women, War, and Rape: Challenges Facing the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”, in Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 17/4, 1995, pp. 649-690.
 
PAPACONSTANTINOU Maria, “Rape as Crime under International Humanitarian Law”, in Revue Hellénique de Droit International, Vol. 51/2, 1998, pp. 477-499.
 
PILCH Frances T., “The Crime of Rape in International Humanitarian Law”, in Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 9, 1998-99, pp. 99-119.
 
QUENIVET Noëlle N.R., Sexual Offenses in Armed Conflict and International Law, Ardsley, Transnational Publishers, 2005, 230 pp.
 
Further readings:
 
ASKIN Kelly Dawn, “Sexual Violence in Decisions and Indictments of the Yugoslav and Rwandan Tribunal: Current Status”, in AJIL, Vol. 93/1, 1999, pp. 97-123.
 
DYANI Ntombizozuko, “Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa: Protection of Women from Sexual Violence during Armed Conflict”, in African Human Rights Law Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 166-187.
 
FLORES ACUNA Tathiana, “The Rome Statute’s Sexual Related Crimes: an Appraisal under the Light of International Humanitarian Law”, in Humanitäres Völkerrecht, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2006, pp. 39-51.
 
LAVIOLETTE Nicole, “Commanding Rape: Sexual Violence, Command Responsibility, and the Prosecution of Superiors by the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda”, in CYIL, Vol. 36, 1998, pp. 93-149.
 
LEWIS Dustin A., “Unrecognized Victims: Sexual Violence against Men in Conflict Settings under International
Law”, Wisconsin International Law Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1-49.
 
RICHEY Katie C., “Several Steps Sideways: International Legal Developments Concerning War Rape and the Human Rights of Women”, in TexasJournal of Women and the Law, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2007, pp. 109-129.
 
SIVAKUMARAN Sandesh, “Sexual Violence against Men in Armed Conflict”, EJIL, Vol. 18, No. 2, April 2007, pp. 253-276.
 
SIVAKUMARAN Sandesh, “Lost in Translation: UN Responses to Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Situations of Armed Conflict”, in IRRC, Vol. 92, No. 877, March 2010, pp. 259-277.
 
VAN DER POLL Letetia, “The Emerging Jurisprudence on Sexual Violence Perpetrated against Women during Armed Conflict”, in African Yearbook on International Humanitarian Law, 2007, pp. 1-38.
 
ZAWATI Hilmi M., “Impunity or Immunity: Wartime Male Rape and Sexual Torture as a Crime against Humanity”, in Torture: Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2007, pp. 27-47