Respect and Ensure Respect

The States party to instruments of international humanitarian law are under the obligation to respect and ensure respect for the said law in all circumstances, and accordingly to disseminate knowledge and repress breaches and grave breaches of it.



respect and ensure respect

   common 1 (see ICRC updated Commentary)




Suggested readings:
BOISSON DE CHAZOURNES Laurence & CONDORELLI Luigi, “Common Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions Revisited: Protecting Collective Interests”, in IRRC, No. 837, March 2000, pp. 67-87.
CONDORELLI Luigi & BOISSON DE CHAZOURNES Laurence, “Quelques remarques à propos de l’obligation des États de ‘respecter et faire respecter’ le droit international humanitaire en toutes circonstances”, in Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet, Geneva, ICRC, The Hague, M. Nijhoff, 1984, pp. 17-35.
LEVRAT Nicolas, “Les conséquences de l’engagement pris par les Hautes Parties contractantes de ‘faire respecter’ les conventions humanitaires”, in KALSHOVEN Frits & SANDOZ Yves (eds), Implementation of International Humanitarian Law, Dordrecht, M. Nijhoff, 1989, pp. 263-296.
McCORMACK Timothy, “The Importance of Effective Multilateral Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law”, in LIJNZAAD Liesbeth, VAN SAMBEEK Johanna & TAHZIB-LIE Bahia (eds), Making the Voice of Humanity Heard, Leiden/Boston, M. Nijhoff, 2004, pp 319-338.
PALWANKAR Umesh, “Measures Available to States for Fulfilling their Obligation to Ensure Respect for International Humanitarian Law”, in IRRC, No. 298, January-February 1994, pp. 9-25.
SACHARIEW Kamen, “State’s Entitlement to Take Action to Enforce International Humanitarian Law”, in IRRC, No. 270, May-June 1989, pp. 177-195. 
Further readings:
CANAL-FORGUES Éric, “La surveillance de l’application de l’arrangement du 26 avril 1996 (Israel-Liban) : une tentative originale de mise en oeuvre de l’obligation de respect du droit international humanitaire”, in RGDIP, Vol. 3, 1998, pp. 723-746.
FLECK Dieter, “International Accountability for Violations of the Ius in Bello: the Impact of the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law”, in Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2006, pp. 179-199.
FOCARELLI Carlo, “Common Article 1 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Soap Bubble?”, in EJIL, Vol. 21, No. 1, February 2010, pp. 125-171.
GASSER Hans-Peter, “Ensuring Respect for the Geneva Conventions and Protocols: The Role of Third States and the United Nations”, in FOX Hazel & MEYER Michael A (eds), Armed Conflict and the New Law, Vol. II, Effecting Compliance, London, The British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 1993, pp. 15-49.
SANDOZ Yves, “L’appel du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge dans le cadre du conflit entre l’Irak et l’Iran”, in AFDI, Vol. 29, 1983, pp. 161-173.
TONKIN Hannah, “Common Article I: a Minimum Yardstick for Regulating Private Military and Security Companies”, in Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2009, pp. 279-299.
WALDMAN Adir, Arbitrating Armed Conflict, Decisions of the Israel-Lebanon Monitoring Group, Huntington N.Y., Juris, 2003, 320 pp.